# An Introduction to Cabal sandboxes

This post describes sandboxes, a new feature of cabal that will be present in the 1.18 release. Sandboxes allow to build packages in isolation by creating a private package environment for each package. If you are familiar with Python’s virtualenv or Ruby’s RVM, this is a Haskell analogue. Though 1.18 is still not out yet, you can already experiment with the new features by building cabal from Git. This post is mainly aimed at people new to sandboxes – if you have already used cabal-dev, feel free to skip the introductory sections.

## Building Cabal from git

Assuming you already have a previous version of cabal installed:

$git clone git://github.com/haskell/cabal.git /path/to/cabal$ cd /path/to/cabal
$cabal install Cabal/ cabal-install/ That’s all! Now you have the latest version of the cabal tool installed under ~/.cabal/bin. Alternatively, if you have only GHC (but not cabal) installed: $ git clone git://github.com/haskell/cabal.git /path/to/cabal
$cd /path/to/cabal/Cabal$ runhaskell Setup.hs configure
$runhaskell Setup.hs build$ runhaskell Setup.hs install
$cd ../cabal-install$ sh bootstrap.sh

## What are sandboxes and why are they needed?

If you have used Haskell for some time, you’ve probably heard the expression “Cabal hell”. It refers to the fact that installing a new package with cabal install can break existing packages on your system.

The reason for this behaviour is destructive reinstalls. As of this writing, Cabal doesn’t support having multiple instances of the same version of a single package installed simultaneously (but note that installing multiple versions of the same package is completely fine). So how does this affect you, the user?

Imagine that you have installed the library foo, which depends on bar-1.0, which in turn depends on baz (any version):

After some time you then decide to install quux, which depends on bar-1.0 and baz-2.0. Since you have only baz-1.0 installed, you need to install baz-2.0 and recompile bar-1.0 against it:

But since Cabal allows you to have only a single instance of bar-1.0 installed, the package foo-1.0 is now broken since it depends on an instance of package bar-1.0 that was removed! Cue much weeping and gnashing of teeth:

While we know what is the right way to fix this issue (see the “future work” section below), getting there will take time, and sandboxes present a relatively low-cost interim solution. The idea is to build each package in an isolated environment (“sandbox”) with a sandbox-local package database. Because sandboxes are per-project, we can constrain them to be internally consistent and simply prohibit such conflicts as described above.

Besides alleviating the “Cabal hell” problem, sandboxes are also useful when your package depends on patched or unreleased libraries.

## Usage

Using sandboxes is simple: if you already know how to use the cabal tool to build your packages, you only need to learn a few additional commands. To initialise a fresh sandbox in the current directory, run cabal sandbox init. All subsequent commands (such as build and install) from this point will use the sandbox.

$cd /path/to/my/haskell/library$ cabal sandbox init                   # Initialise the sandbox
$cabal install --only-dependencies # Install dependencies into the sandbox$ cabal build                          # Build your package inside the sandbox

It can be useful to make a source package available for installation in the sandbox - for example, if your package depends on a patched or an unreleased version of a library. This can be done with the cabal sandbox add-source command - think of it as “local Hackage”. If an add-source dependency is later modified, it is reinstalled automatically.

$cabal sandbox add-source /my/patched/library # Add a new add-source dependency$ cabal install --dependencies-only            # Install it into the sandbox
$cabal build # Build the local package$ $EDITOR /my/patched/library/Source.hs # Modify the add-source dependency$ cabal build                                  # Modified dependency is automatically reinstalled

Normally, the sandbox settings (such as optimisation level) are inherited from the main Cabal config file ($HOME/.cabal/config). Sometimes, though, you need to change some settings specifically for a single sandbox. You can do this by creating a cabal.config file in the same directory with your cabal.sandbox.config (which was created by sandbox init). This file has the same syntax as the main Cabal config file. $ cat cabal.config
documentation: True
constraints: foo == 1.0, bar >= 2.0, baz
$cabal build # Uses settings from the cabal.config file When you have decided that you no longer want to build your package inside a sandbox, just delete it: $ cabal sandbox delete                       # Built-in command
$rm -rf .cabal-sandbox cabal.sandbox.config # Alternative manual method ## Advanced usage The default behaviour of the add-source command is to track modifications done to the added dependency and reinstall the sandbox copy of the package when needed. Sometimes this is not desirable: in these cases you can use add-source --snapshot, which disables the change tracking. In addition to add-source, there are also list-sources and delete-source commands. Sometimes one wants to share a single sandbox between multiple packages. This can be easily done with the --sandbox option: $ cd /path/to/shared-sandbox
$cabal sandbox init --sandbox .$ cd /path/to/package-a
$cabal sandbox init --sandbox /path/to/shared-sandbox$ cd /path/to/package-b
$cabal sandbox init --sandbox /path/to/shared-sandbox Using multiple different versions of GHC simultaneously is also supported, via the -w option: $ cabal sandbox init
$cabal install --only-dependencies -w /path/to/ghc-1 # Install dependencies for both compilers$ cabal install --only-dependencies -w /path/to/ghc-2
$cabal configure -w /path/to/ghc-1 # Build with the first compiler$ cabal build
$cabal configure -w /path/to/ghc-2 # Build with the second compiler$ cabal build

It can be occasionally useful to run the ghc-pkg tool on the sandbox package DB directly (for example, you may need to unregister some packages). The command cabal sandbox hc-pkg is a convenient wrapper for ghc-pkg that runs it with the appropriate --package-conf argument:

$cabal -v sandbox hc-pkg list Using a sandbox located at /path/to/.cabal-sandbox 'ghc-pkg' '--global' '--no-user-package-conf' '--package-conf=/path/to/.cabal-sandbox/i386-linux-ghc-7.4.2-packages.conf.d' 'list' [...] ## For the users of cabal-dev The sandbox feature gives you basically the same functionality as cabal-dev, but integrated with the cabal tool itself. Here’s a handy cheatsheet for the users of cabal-dev: |——————————————-|——————————|—————————————| | Action | cabal-dev | cabal sandbox | |——————————————-| —————————–|—————————————| | Initialise a sandbox | cabal-dev$ANY_COMMAND | cabal sandbox init | | Delete the sandbox | rm -rf ./cabal-dev | cabal sandbox delete | | Link a source directory from the sandbox | N/A | cabal sandbox add-source | | Make a package available in the sandbox | cabal-dev add-source | cabal sandbox add-source --snapshot | | Build the current package | cabal-dev build | cabal build | | Install a package into the sandbox | cabal-dev install $PKGNAME | cabal install$PKGNAME | | Any other standard cabal command | cabal-dev $COMMAND | cabal$COMMAND | | Install dependencies of a package | cabal-dev install-deps | cabal install --only-dependencies | | Run sandbox-local ghci | cabal-dev ghci | cabal repl | | Sandbox-restricted ghc-pkg | cabal-dev ghc-pkg | cabal sandbox hc-pkg | | Path to the sandbox directory | ./cabal-dev | ./.cabal-sandbox | |——————————————-|——————————|—————————————|

One important difference is that add-source adds a link to a source directory instead of making a source snapshot available for install. The add-source packages are reinstalled each time the sandboxed package is built. To get cabal-dev’s behaviour, use cabal add-source --snapshot.

Another difference is that sandboxes are constrained to be consistent - that is, destructively reinstalling a package (like in the introduction example) is not allowed. Installing multiple versions of a package is still fine.

## Future work

In the future, we want to make hermetic builds the default - that is, the build system should work as if all build artifacts were rebuilt anew each time. Ideally, this feature would be built on top of a purely functional Nix-like package DB, which would allow to share build artifacts between different builds without worrying about the destructive update problem outlined in the introduction. Unfortunately, this is a large and a non-trivial project, although some work has already been done in this direction. A possible interim solution is to run each build in its own sandbox.

There is also a number of relatively minor UI issues with sandboxes which were postponed until the next release (1.20). For more details on this, see the Cabal bug tracker.

Last but not least, we’re really interested in your feedback on this feature, especially in how well it works on large-scale projects.

## Acknowledgements

Thanks to Johan Tibell, Duncan Coutts and Andres Löh for code reviews and guidance, and to Google for paying me for working on this project during last summer. Thanks to Rogan Creswick for writing the original cabal-dev tool, which this work builds upon.